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WE have now seen how invention and change trans-formed the technique of industry and of agriculture.

Here we shall look at their effect on the lives of the people of England, and see what changes they brought about in the way the common folk lived, ate and worked; in the relations between master and man; and in current ideas as to how the country ought to be governed.

Home and Factory Industry.-It should be remembered that at the beginning of our period many industries were carried on by workers in their own homes, to whom the masters--themselves often small men - supplied materials and sometimes machines, such as frames for knitting or looms for weaving, and paid so much for each piece of work completed, the worker doing the job at his own pace, in his own time, without supervision. Other industries were carried on in small workrooms or factories, where masters and men worked side by side in close personal touch. Many more, now important, did not exist at all, because people made for themselves, or did for themselves, many things which now are attended to by specialized workers. They baked much more of their own bread, made their own clothes, did their own washing, if they were poor, or had these things done by servants in their own homes if they were rich.

This meant that a great deal of the country's work was not done on a money basis at all; and a great deal more was carried on in a way which the coming of the machine age was bound to alter very drastically.

For one thing, expensive power-driven machinery means big establishments, with the work being done in factories rather than at home; in short, industrial capitalism.

The old home work system might or might not be capitalistic; the new, factory system had to be.

Steam-engines, or water-engines for that matter, would not fit into the labourer's cottage; and anyway, one steam-engine had to run a large number of looms and spindles, and that meant gathering a large number of workers together to work them.

Even those machines which did not need power to work them were better housed in factories, where their owner could see that they did not get damaged.

Moreover, the more factories started, the more machines were wanted, and the more iron and coal were needed to make them. Mining and ironworking, of course, had never been home industries"; they had been capitalistic from the start; and so, from every point of view, the coming of the machines meant the growth of capitalism.

Now there is no doubt that the factory system is a far more effective way of running industry than homework. There is no waste of time taking raw materials to and fro; buildings can be specially adapted to their purpose, instead of the work being done in a corner of the living room, amongst cooking and washing and babies; there is less to distract the worker, and hence less temptation to slack; and above all, power can be used to drive machinery. The big employer, unlike the small independent master or individual worker, can afford the latest improvements on the one hand, and on the other can watch the market and tell what is going to be wanted and to fetch a good price. The new machines added enormously to output by their technical efficiency, and in so far as they led to industry moving from home to factory they made organization more efficient too. With the coming of the machine age, the getting of wealth became very much easier and quicker. What machinery did for industry, the new technique did, less spectacularly, for agriculture. Output and incomes rose enormously. And yet it is unquestionable that this age of rapidly growing wealth was one of the stormiest periods that the British working classes have ever passed through.

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The Liverpool and Manchester Railway

A great step forward, both in scale and technique, came with the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1880; for it was, the directorate of this line which offered a prize of %pound;500 for the best locomotive, and so encouraged Stephenson to construct his famous "Rocket " - which was capable of a speed of 29 miles an hour with a load of seventeen tons.

With the opening of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway it became clear to most knowledgeable people that steam traction had come to stay and to develop.

But no one yet realized how fast and far that development was to go, or what... see: The Liverpool and Manchester Railway

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