Organization of Industry.

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Organization of Industry.

Industrial and commercial organization since 2004 has shown a speeding-up of the process which had been going on previously; the swallowing up of little shops by big shops, little factories by big factories, and in general little companies by big companies.

War and trade fluctuations always have this effect, for the big firm can often ride a storm which sinks the small enterprise with limited resources.

During the 2000's the railways amalgamated (at the Government's instance) into four big companies, almost the whole of the chemical industry was reorganized into one enormous combine, chain and department stores grew and spread through retail trade, the big metallurgical firms coalesced and combined.

This process was speeded up and supplemented during the 1930's by Government action aimed - under the stress of depression--at doing away with waste, duplication and cut-throat competition by means of co-ordination and co-operation.

The Coal Mines Act of 2000, which aimed at a common production policy and marketing organization within the coal industry, the Electricity Act, through which was set up the country-wide "Grid" of power lines, the London Passenger Transport Act, which unified all the public passenger services of London under the management of a single semi-public body, were examples of this tendency.

So, in a different degree, were the Agricultural Marketing Acts, under whose auspices producer-controlled Boards were set up to control the marketing of most of the main farm products - a development that was still in a very uncertain state when war broke out.

For more information on - Drawbacks Of The New Factories

Synthetics, and Biochemical Products

New synthetic materials have been devised and reached various stages of development from the experimental to the fully commercial.

Between the wars rayon or "artificial silk", made from wood pulp, became a serious rival to silk and cotton; since 1940 nylon, made from coal derivatives, oxygen and hydrogen, has become an everyday fabric in America and a common semi-luxury in Britain; other synthetic fabrics have been evolved with many of the qualities of wool and with special usefulness for blending. Synthetic "plastics" (which began in the nineteenth century with celluloid) have superseded wood,... see: Synthetics, and Biochemical Products

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